How Volcanos Can Trigger Tsunamis?
Volcano activity had a significant impact on the recent devastating tsunami in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Everyone in the region was aware of Anak Krakatau, the volcano that emerged in the sea less than 100 years ago. Its eruptions and rumblings have been described by local experts as semi-continuous and low-scale.
It is well known that volcanos have the capacity to generate big waves. The eruption of volcanos can cause the displacement of a large volume of water.
The first satellite imagery points to a collapse of a 64-hectare segment of the west-southwest flank of the volcano. This caused sending millions of tons of rocky debris into the sea which pushed out waves in all directions.
Prof. Andy Hooper from Leeds University, UK and a specialist in the study of volcanoes from orbit, had little doubt in the above-stated interpretation when he examined the pictures from Europe’s Sentinel-1 radar spacecraft. Prof. Andy Hooper said:
“As well as an increase in the size of the crater, there are new dark features on the west side indicating steep-sided scarps in shadow, presumably due to collapse; as well as changes in the coastline.”
Any further collapse could kick off more tsunamis in the area. Scientists were concerned for some time about Anak Krakatau. A group of experts believe that the eventual collapse of the southwest flank which is the side of the volcano considered to be the most unstable could cause waves which are tens of meters high.
Climate Change Impact in 2018
According to Christian Aid, weather events linked to climate change cost thousands of lives and huge damage throughout the world in 2018.
The report identified ten events that cost approximately $1bn each with four events costing more than $7bn each. The most financially costly disaster linked to rising temperatures is Hurricanes Florence and Michael. The costs are around $17bn for the former and around $15bn for the latter. The report stated that the rains accompanying Hurricane Florence were made 50% worse than they would be without any human activity influencing warming. Experts believe that human activities lead to the emissions that made the water warmer while adding speed to the storm. Only in Japan, this year was full of extremes with heatwaves and flooding during the summer causing huge impacts.
Scientists proved that the chances of heat waves in Europe in 2018 were directly influenced by human-related warming. According to the Christian Aid study, warming is driving major shifts in weather patterns that make wildfires and droughts more likely. Dr. Kat Kramer from Christian Aid said:
“Climate change is something still often talked about as a future problem, not least because we know the consequences of the warming climate are so devastating and don’t want to face up to what is already happening. This report shows that for many people, climate change is having devastating impacts on their lives and livelihoods right now. The great injustice of climate breakdown is that the people that suffer first and worst, are the world’s poor that have done the least to contribute to the crisis.”
Sending Astronauts to Mars Would be Stupid?
According to one of the first men to orbit around the Moon, it would be “stupid” to plan human missions to Mars.
Bill Anders was a lunar module pilot of Apollo 8 which is the first human spaceflight to leave Earth’s orbit. Bill Anders is not optimistic about the idea of sending crews to Mars, saying that the idea is “almost ridiculous”.
Currently, Nasa is planning new human missions to the Moon. Anders, (85 years old) is a “big supporter” of the “remarkable” programs, “mainly because they’re much cheaper”. Anders said that public support simply isn’t there to fund more expensive human missions: “What’s the imperative? What’s pushing us to go to Mars? I don’t think the public is that interested”.
Meanwhile, we have robotic probes are exploring Mars. In November, the InSight lander successfully touched down the Elysium Planitia.
In a statement, Nasa said about the mission that it was “leading a sustainable return to the Moon, which will help prepare us to send astronauts to Mars. That also includes commercial and international partners to expand human presence in space and bring back new knowledge and opportunities.”